2018年北京高考英语试题及答案一览

【导语】:目前2018年北京高考英语真题及答案解析已公布,北京本地宝整理了详细的试题及答案供考生参考,希望对大家有所帮助。

2018年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试

英语(北京卷)

  第一部分:知识运用(共两节,45分)

  第一节单项填空(共15小题;每小题1分,共15分)

  从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,

  并在答题卡上:将该项涂黑。

  例: it's so nice to hear from her again__,we last met more than thirty yearsago.

  A. what's more

  B. That’s to say

  C. In other words

  D. Believe it or not

  答案是D。

  1. -Hi, I'm Peter. Are you new here? I haven't seen you around?

  -Hello, Peter. I'm Bob. I just__on Monday.

  A. start

  B. have started

  C. started

  D. had started

  2. __we don't stop climate change, many animals and plants in the worldwill be gone.

  A. Although

  B. While

  C. If

  D. Until

  3. __along the old Silk Road is an interesting and rewarding experience

  A. Travel

  B. Traveling

  C. Having traveled

  D. Traveled

  4. Susan had quit her well-paid job and __as a volunteer in theneighborhood. when I visited her last year

  A. is working

  B. was working

  C. has worked

  D. had worked

  5. She and her family bicycle to work, helps them keep fit

  A. which

  B. who

  C.as

  D. that

  6. During the Mid-Autumn Festival, family members often gather together__ameal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes.

  A. share

  B. to share

  C. having shared

  D. shared

  7. China's high-speed railways from 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers in thepastfew years.

  A. are growing

  B. have grown

  C. will grow

  D. had grown

  8. In any unsafe situation, simply__the button and a highly-trained agentwill get you the help you need.

  A. press

  B. to press

  C. pressing

  D. pressed

  9. A rescue worker risked his life saving two tourists who__in themountains for two days.

  A. are trapping

  B. have been trapped

  C. were trapping

  D. had been trapped

  10. Ordinary soap, __correctly, can deal with bacteria effectively.

  A. used

  B. to use

  C. using

  D. use

  11. Without his support, we wouldn't be__we are now.

  A. how

  B. when

  C. where

  D. why

  12. In today's information age, the loss of data__cause serious problemsfor a company.

  A. need

  B. should

  C. can

  D. must

  13. They might have found a better hotel if they__a few morekilometers.

  A. drove

  B. would drive

  C. were to drive

  D. had driven

  14.-Good morning, Mr. lee's office.

  -Good morning. I'd like to make an appointment__next Wednesdayafternoon.

  A. for

  B. on

  C. in

  D. at

  15. This is__my father has taught me-to always face difficulties and hopefor the best.

  A. how

  B. which

  C. the

  D. what

  第二节完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,共30分)

  阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

  The Homeless Hero

  For many,finding an unattended wallet filled with £400 in cash would be asource(来源)of temptation(诱惑).But the 16 would no doubt be greater if you wereliving on the streets with little food and money. All of this makes the actionsof the homeless Tom Smith 17 more remarkable.

  After spotting a 18 on the front seat inside a parked car with its windowdown,he stood guard in the rain for about two hours waiting for the 19 toreturn.

  After hours in the cold and wet, he 20 inside and pulled the wallet outhoping to find some ID so he could contact(联系)the driver, only to 21 itcontained £400 in notes,with another £50 in spare change beside it.

  He then took the wallet to a nearby police station after 22 a note behindto let the owner know it was safe. When the car’s owner John Anderson and hiscolleague Carol Lawrence returned to the car-which was itself worth £35,000—inGlasgow city centre, they were 23 to find two policemen standing next to it. Thepolicemen told them what Mr. Smith did and that the wallet was 24 .

  The pair were later able to thank Mr. Smith for his 25 .

  Mr. Anderson said:“"I couldn’t believe that the guy never took a penny. Tothink he is sleeping on the streets tonight 26 he could have stolen the moneyand paid for a place to stay in. This guy has nothing and 27 he didn't take thewallet for himself;he thought about others 28 it’s unbelievable. It just provesthere are 29 guys out there.”

  Mr. smith’s act 30 much of the public’s attention. He also won praise fromsocial media users after Mr. Anderson 31 about the act of kindness onFacebook.

  Now Mr. Anderson has set up an online campaign to 32 money for

  Mr. Smith and other homeless people in the area, which by yesterday hadreceived £8,000. “I think the faith that everyone has shown 33 him has touchedhim. People have been approaching him in the street; he's ha I job 34 and allsorts, ”Mr. Anderson commented.

  For Mr. Smith, this is a possible life-changing 35 . The story once againtells us that one good turn deserves another.

  16.

  A. hope

  B. aim

  C. urge

  D. effort

  17.

  A. still

  B. even

  C. ever

  D. once

  18.

  A. wallet

  B. bag

  C. box

  D. parcel

  19.

  A. partner

  B. colleague

  C. owner

  D. policeman

  20.

  A. turned

  B. hid

  C. stepped

  D. reached

  21.

  A. discover

  B. collect

  C. check

  D. believe

  22.

  A. taking

  B. leaving

  C. reading

  D. writing

  23.

  A. satisfied

  B. excited

  C. amused

  D. shocked

  24.

  A. safe

  B. missing

  C. found

  D. seen

  25.

  A. service

  B. support

  C. kindness

  D. encouragement

  26.

  A. when

  B. if

  C. where

  D. because

  27.

  A. rather

  B. yet

  C. already

  D. just

  28.

  A. too

  B. though

  C. again

  D. instead

  29.

  A. honest

  B. polite

  C. rich

  D. generous

  30.

  A. gave

  B. paid

  C. cast

  D. drew

  31.

  A. learned

  B. posted

  C. cared

  D. heard

  32.

  A. borrow

  B. raise

  C. save

  D. earn

  33.

  A. of

  B. at

  C. for

  D. in

  34.

  A. details

  B. changes

  C. offers

  D. applications

  35.

  A. lesson

  B. adventure

  C. chance

  D. challenge

  第二部分:阅读理解(共两节,40分)

  第一节(共15小题:每小题2分,共30分)

  阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最仁选项,并

  在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

  A

  My First Marathon(马拉松)

  A month before my first marathon, one of my ankles was injured and thismeant not running for two weeks, leaving me only two weeks to train. Yet, I wasdetermined to go ahead.

  I remember back to my 7th year in school. In my first P.E. class, theteacher required us to run laps and then hit a softball. I didn't do eitherwell. He later informed me that I was“ not athletic”.

  The idea that I was "not athletic" stuck with me for years. When I startedrunning in my 30s,I realized running was a battle against myself, not aboutcompetition or whether or not I was athletic. It was all about the battleagainst my own body and mind. A test of wills!

  The night before my marathon, I dreamt that I couldn't even find the finishline. I woke up sweating and nervous, but ready to prove something tomyself.

  Shortly after crossing the start line, my shoe laces (鞋带)became untied. SoI stopped to readjust. Not the start I wanted!

  At mile3, I passed a sign:“ GO FOR IT, RUNNERS!”

  By mile 17, I became out of breath and the once injured ankle hurt badly.Despite the pain, I stayed the course walking a bit and then running again.

  By mile 21, I was starving!

  As I approached mile 23, I could see my wife waving a sign. She is mybiggest fan. She never minded the alarm clock sounding at 4 a.m. or questionedmy expenses on running.

  I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got amedal. In fact, I got the same medal as the one that the guy who came in firstplace had.

  Determined to be myself,, move forward, free of shame and worldlylabels(世俗标签), I can now call myself a "marathon winner”.

  36. A month before the marathon, the author .

  A. was well trained

  B. felt scared

  C. made up his mind to run

  D. Lost hope

  37. Why did the author mention the P.E. class in his 7th year?

  A. To acknowledge the support of his teacher.

  B. To amuse the readers with a funny story.

  C. To show he was not talented in sports.

  D. To share a precious memory.

  38. How was the author's first marathon?

  A. He made it.

  B. He quit halfway.

  C. He got the first prize.

  D. He walked to the end.

  39. What does the story mainly tell us?

  A. A man owes his success to his family support.

  B. A winner is one with a great effort of will.

  C. Failure is the mother of success.

  D. One is never too old to learn.

  B

  Find Your Adventure at the Space and Aviation (航空)Center

  If you're looking for a unique adventure, the Space and AviationCenter(SAC)is the place to be. The Center offers programs designed to challengeand inspire with hands-on tasks and lots of fun.

  More than 750,000 have graduated from SAC, with many seeking employment inengineering, aviation, education, medicine and a wide variety of otherprofessions. They come to camp, wanting to know what it is like to be anastronaut or a pilot, and they leave with real-world applications for whatthey're studying in the classroom.

  For the trainees,the programs also offer a great way

  to earn merit badges(荣誉徽章). At Space Camp, trainees can earn their SpaceExploration badge as they build and fire model rockets, learn about space tasksand try simulated (模拟) flying to space with the crew from all over the world.The Aviation Challenge program gives trainees the chance to earn their Aviationbadge. They learn the principles of flight and test their operating skills inthe cockpit(驾驶舱)of a variety of flight simulators. Trainees also get a goodstart on their Wilderness Survival badge as they learn about water-and

  land-survival through designed tasks and their search and rescue of“downed" pilot.

  With all the programs, teamwork is key as trainees learn the importance ofleadership and being part of a bigger task.

  All this fun is available for ages 9 to 18. Families can enjoy theexperience together, too, with Family Camp programs for families with childrenas young as 7.

  Stay an hour or stay a week--there is something here for everyone!

  For more details,please visit us online at www.oursac.com.

  40. Why do people come to SAC?

  A. To experience adventures.

  B. To look for jobs in aviation.

  C. To get a degree in engineering.

  D. To learn more about medicine.

  41. To earn a Space Exploration badge, a trainee needs to .

  A. fly to space.

  B. get an Aviation badge first.

  C. study the principles of flight.

  D. build and fire model rockets.

  42. What is the most important for trainees?

  A. Leadership.

  B. Team spirit.

  C. Task planning.

  D. Survival skills.

  C

  Plastic-Eating Worms

Humans produce more than 300 milliontons of plastic every year. Almost half of that winds up in landfills(垃圾填埋场),and up to 12 million tons pollute the oceans. qSo far there is no effective wayto get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs ofsome hungry worms.

  Researchers in Spain and England recently found that the worms of thegreater wax moth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40% ofplastics. The team left 100 wax worms on a commercial polyethylene shopping bagfor 12 hours, and the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, oralmost 3% of it. To confirm that the worms' chewing alone was not responsiblefor the polyethylene breakdown, the

  researchers made some worms into paste(糊状物) and applied it to plasticfilms. 14 hours later the films had lost 13% of their mass--apparently brokendown by enzymes(酶)from the worms' stomachs. Their findings were published inCurrent Biology in 2017.

  Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms' ability tobreak down their everyday food-beeswax--also allows them to break down plastic"Wax is a complex mixture, but the basic bond in polyethylene, the carbon-carbonbond, is there

  as well, "she explains. "The wax worm evolved a method or system to breakthis bond. "

  Jennifer Debruyn, a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, who wasnot involved in the study, says it is not surprising that such worms can breakdown polyethylene. But compared with previous studies, she finds the speed ofbreaking down in this one exciting. The next step, DeBruyn says, will be toidentify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itselfor by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)?

  Bertocchini agrees and hopes her team’s findings might one day help employthe enzyme to break down plastics in landfills. But she expects using thechemical in some kind of industrial process-not simply "millions of worms thrownon top of the plastic.”

  43. What can we learn about the worms in the study?

  A. They take plastics as their everyday food.

  B. They are newly evolved creatures.

  C. They can consume plastics.

  D. They wind up in landfills.

  44. According to Jennifer DeBruyn, the next step of the study is to .

  A. identify other means of the breakdown

  B. find out the source of the enzyme

  C. confirm the research findings

  D. increase the breakdown speed

  45. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the chemical might.

  A. help to raise worms

  B. help make plastic bags

  C. be used to clean the oceans

  D. be produced in factories in future

  46. What is the main purpose of the passage?

  A. To explain a study method on worms.

  B. To introduce the diet of a special worm.

  C. To present a way to break down plastics.

  D. To propose new means to keep eco-balance.

  D

  Preparing Cities for Robot Cars

  The possibility of self-driving robot cars has often seemed like afuturist's dream, years away from materializing in the real world. Well, thefuture is apparently now. The California Department of Motor Vehicles begangiving permits in April for companies to test truly self-driving cars on publicroads. The state also cleared the way for companies to sell or rent outself-driving cars, and for companies to operate driverless taxi services.California, it should be noted, isn't leading the way here. Companies have beentesting their vehicles in cities across the country. It's hard to predictwhen

  driverless cars will be everywhere on our roads. But however long it takes,the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and ourcities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation isregulated.

  While much of the debate so far has been focused on the safety ofdriverless cars(and rightfully so), policymakers also should be talking abouthow self-driving vehicles can help reduce traffic jams, cut emissions(排放) andoffer more convenient, affordable

  mobility options. The arrival of driverless vehicles is a chance to makesure that those vehicles are environmentally friendly and more shared.

  Do we want to copy- or even worsen- the traffic of today with driverlesscars? Imagine a future where most adults own individual self-driving vehicles.They tolerate long, slow journeys to and from work on packed highways becausethey can work, entertain themselves or sleep on the ride, which encourages urbanspread. They take their driverless car to an appointment and set the emptyvehicle to circle the building to avoid paying for parking. Instead of walking afew blocks to pick up a child or the dry cleaning, they send the self-drivingminibus. The convenience even leads fewer people to take public transport——anunwelcome side effect researchers have already found in ride- hailing(叫车)services.

  A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacingpetrol-powered private cars worldwide with electric, self-driving and sharedsystems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80% and cut the costof transportation infrastructure

  (基础设施) and operations40%by2050. Fewer emissions and cheaper travel soundpretty appealing. The first commercially available driverless cars will almostcertainly be fielded by ride-hailing services, considering the cost ofself-driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(责任与维护问题).Butdriverless car ownership could increase as the prices drop and more peoplebecome comfortable with the technology.

  Policymakers should start thinking now about how to make sure theappearance of driverless vehicles doesn't extend the worst aspects of thecar-controlled transportation system we have today. The coming technologicaladvancement presents a chance for cities and states to develop transportationsystems designed to move more people,and

  more affordably. The car of the future is coming. We just have to plan forit.

  47. According to the author,attention should be paid to how driverless carscan__________.

  A. help deal with transportation-related problems

  B. provide better services to customers

  C. cause damage to our environment

  D. make some people lose jobs

  48. As for driverless cars,what is the author's major concern?

  A. Safety.

  B. Side effects.

  C. Affordability.

  D. Management.

  49. What does the underlined word “fielded” in Paragraph 4 probablymean?

  A. Employed.

  B. Replaced.

  C. Shared.

  D. Reduced.

  50. What is the author's attitude to the future of self-driving cars?

  A. Doubtful.

  B. Positive.

  C. Disapproving.

  D. Sympathetic

  第二节(共5小题;每小题2分,共10分)

  根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

  Why Do We Get Angry?

  Anger seems simple when we are feeling it, but the causes of anger arevarious. Knowing these causes can make us examine our behavior,and correct badhabits. The main reasons we get angry are triggering(触发)events,personalitytraits(特征),and our assessment of situations. 51

  Triggering events for anger are so many that to describe them all wouldtake hundreds of pages. However, here are some examples: being cut off intraffic, a deadline approaching, experiencing physical pain, and much more._52The reason why someone is triggered by something and others are not is often dueto one's personal history and psychological traits.

  Each person. no matter who they are, has psychological imbalances. Peoplewho have personality traits that conncct with competitiveness and low upsettolerance are much more likely to get angry. 53 Also, sometimes pre-anger doesnot have to do with a lasting condition, but rather a temporary state before atriggering event has occurred.

  ____54 Sometimes even routine occurrences become sources of pre-anger, oranger itself. Sometimes ignorance and negative (消极的)outlooks on situations cancreate anger.

  ____55 However, anger can easily turn violent, and it is best to know thereasons for anger to appear in order to prevent its presence. With these mainreasons in mind, we can evaluate our level of anger throughout the day andprevent cases of outbursts by comprehending the reasons for our feelings.

  A. Our attitude and viewpoint on situations can create anger within us aswell.

  B. But some types of situations can help us to get rid of the occurrence ofanger.

  C. Anger is rarely looked upon as a beneficial character trait, and isusually advised to reduce it.

  D. Anger is a particularly strong feeling and maybe people think that theyhave reasons to feel angry.

  E. Having these personality traits implies the pre-anger state, where angeris in the background of your mind.

  F. Understanding these reasons will control our own anger if we are willingto evaluate ourselves with a critical eye.

  G. Not everyone acts the same in response to events, and that is why whattriggers one person may or may not trigger another.

  第三部分:书面表达(共两节,35分)

  第一节(15分)

  假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,你的英国朋友Jim在给你的邮件中提到他

  对中国文化感兴趣,计划明年来北京上大学。他向你咨询相关信息。请给他回邮件,内容包括:

  1.表示欢迎;

  2.推荐他上哪所大学;

  3.建议他做哪些准备工作。

  注意:1.词数不少于50;

  2.开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。

  Dear Jim,

  ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  Yours

  Li Hua

  (请务必将作文写在答题卡指定区域内)

  第二节(20分)

  假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,请根据以下四幅图的先后顺序,写一篇英

  文周记,记述你们上周接待外国学生,带领他们体验中国茶文化的全过程。

  注意:词数不少于60。


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